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國民經濟和社會發展計劃2019年執行情況與2020年草案的報告(3)(中英對照)

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6. We promoted market-oriented reforms and further energized market entities. We upheld and improved the basic socialist economic system, and made significant progress with regard to reform of key areas and sectors.

(六)全面推進市場化改革,市場主體活力進一步激發。堅持和完善社會主義基本經濟制度,重點領域、關鍵環節改革全面推進。

1) The business environment was further optimized. We further pushed forward with reforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services. The Regulations on Improving the Business Environment were promulgated, demonstrating the efforts China is making to build a business environment evaluation system. We carried out business environment evaluations in 41 cities nationwide. The Negative List for Market Access (2019) was published and the number of items listed was reduced to 131. We worked to ensure that investment approval is conducted in line with relevant procedures, and is accessible online. The approval procedures for construction projects were further simplified. Interdepartmental oversight conducted through the random selection of both inspectors and inspection targets and the prompt release of results was rolled out incrementally. We accelerated the formulation of the list of items for the Internet Plus Oversight initiative. The functions and services of the national platform for sharing credit information were improved. We also accelerated the setting up of a new, credit-based oversight mechanism. A national online platform for government services was launched on a trial basis. The nationwide network for financial credit information database services was set up.

一是營商環境持續優化。“放管服”改革向縱深推進,《優化營商環境條例》頒佈,構建中國營商環境評價體系,在全國41個城市開展營商環境評價。印發市場準入負面清單(2019年版),清單事項壓減至131項。規範投資審批行為,投資審批“一網通辦”水平不斷提高。工程建設項目審批環節繼續精簡。部門聯合“雙隨機、一公開”監管逐步推行,“互聯網+監管”事項清單加快制定,全國信用信息共享平台功能和服務不斷完善,以信用為基礎的新型監管機制加快構建。全國一體化政務服務平台上線試運行,金融信用信息數據庫服務網絡覆蓋全國。

2) Reforms in the areas of mixed ownership, the protection of property rights, and the nurturing of entrepreneurial spirit were pushed forward in a coordinated manner. Pilot reforms of mixed ownership were carried out in the fourth group of 160 SOEs. We strengthened the protection of property and intellectual property rights and made breakthroughs in reviewing and correcting wrongly adjudicated cases involving property rights. Steady progress was made in dedicated campaigns to address property rights disputes involving the government. The policies and measures for supporting reform and development of private enterprises and promoting healthy development of SMEs were promulgated. A sound mechanism for entrepreneurs to participate in enterprise-related policy formulation was established.

二是混合所有制改革、產權保護、激發保護企業家精神等改革聯動推進。第四批160户混合所有制改革試點啓動實施。加強產權和知識產權保護,甄別糾正涉產權冤錯案件取得重要突破,涉政府產權糾紛問題專項治理行動有序開展。出台支持民營企業改革發展、促進中小企業健康發展的政策措施,建立健全企業家參與涉企政策制定機制。

3) We stepped up reforms for the market-based allocation of factors of production. We formulated guidelines on institutional reform to promote the social mobility of labor and talent. We revised the Securities Law, set up the Science and Technology Innovation Board and launched trials for a registration-based IPO system, and reformed and improved the loan prime rate (LPR) mechanism. We gave greater say to research institutes and universities with regard to their research, piloted the practice of granting researchers ownership of or permanent use rights over scientific and technological output at work, and set up a service system for technology transfer. The Land Administration Law and the Urban Real Estate Administration Law were revised. The secondary markets for the transfer, leasing, and mortgage of use rights for land for construction purposes were further improved, while the systems for the sale of land designated for industrial purposes through various means and for ensuring adequate market supply of such land were made more robust.

三是要素市場化配置改革加快落地。制定促進勞動力和人才社會性流動體制機制改革意見。修訂證券法,設立科創板並試點註冊制,改革完善貸款市場報價利率(LPR)形成機制。擴大高校和科研院所科研相關自主權,開展賦予科研人員職務科技成果所有權或長期使用權試點,構建技術轉移服務體系。修訂土地管理法、城市房地產管理法,建設用地使用權轉讓、出租、抵押二級市場進一步完善,工業用地多方式出讓和市場供應體系更加健全。

4) Reforms in key areas were deepened. The China Oil & Gas Piping Network Corporation was founded. We opened up markets for upstream oil and gas exploration and exploitation.Reform measures for dividing fiscal authority and spending responsibilities between central and local governments in the areas of education, science and technology, and transportation were rolled out. More and more electricity transactions were market-based, and steady progress was made in reforms to raise the number of electricity distributors as well as in trials for the spot trading of electricity. The reform of the price-setting mechanism for on-grid electricity from coal-fired power plants, the pricing reform of on-grid electricity generated from wind power and photovoltaic power, the comprehensive reform of the pricing of water used in agriculture, and price reform in the transportation industry were all steadily advanced. The China State Railway Group Co., Ltd. and the China Post Group Co., Ltd. were established by means of restructuring. In addition, reforms for cutting links between industry associations and chambers of commerce and the government were carried out across the board.

四是重點領域改革深入推進。國家石油天然氣管網集團有限公司組建成立。全面放開石油天然氣上游勘查開採准入。出台教育、科技、交通運輸等領域中央與地方財政事權和支出責任劃分改革方案。電力交易市場化程度進一步提高,增量配電業務改革和電力現貨市場建設試點穩步推進。深化燃煤發電上網電價形成機制改革,風電和光伏上網電價改革、農業水價綜合改革、交通運輸價格改革有序推進。改制成立中國國家鐵路集團有限公司和中國郵政集團有限公司。行業協會商會與行政機關脱鈎改革全面推開。

7. We continued to expand high-level opening up and worked faster to develop an open economy. We promoted opening up across more sectors and in a more thorough fashion, and stepped up efforts to develop new strengths in international economic cooperation and competition.

(七)持續深化高水平開放,開放型經濟新格局加快構建。對外開放向更大範圍、更寬領域、更深層次全面推進,國際經濟合作和競爭新優勢加快培育。

1) Joint efforts to advance the Belt and Road Initiative made solid headway. We successfully held the second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation. China has so far signed 200 cooperation agreements with 138 countries and 30 international organizations for jointly advancing the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Smooth progress was achieved in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and other projects. Active progress was made in key projects such as the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed line, the China-Laos rail line, and Gwadar port. The China-Russia east-route natural gas pipeline began operating. We established mechanisms for third-party market cooperation with 14 countries, including France, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The BRI International Green Development Coalition was launched. Steady progress was made in developing the Digital Silk Road and Silk Road E-Commerce. China-Europe freight train services registered a total of over 20,000 trips, incorporating 57 cities in 18 European countries, and the ratio of loaded containers reached 94%. The General Plan for New Land-Sea Transit Routes for the Western Region was published.

一是共建“一帶一路”紮實推進。第二屆“一帶一路”國際合作高峯論壇成功舉辦。累計與138個國家和30個國際組織簽署200份共建“一帶一路”合作文件。中巴經濟走廊等建設進展順利。雅萬高鐵、中老鐵路、瓜達爾港等重大項目取得積極進展,中俄東線天然氣管道投產通氣。與法國、英國、日本等14個國家建立第三方市場合作機制。“一帶一路”綠色發展國際聯盟正式啓動,“數字絲綢之路”“絲路電商”建設合作有序推進。中歐班列累計開行突破2萬列,通達歐洲18個國家的57個城市,綜合重箱率達94%。西部陸海新通道總體規劃印發實施。

2) Foreign trade saw stable, higher-quality growth. We carried out the Guidelines on Promoting High-Quality Development of Trade. We successfully hosted the second China International Import Expo. Significant progress was made in the negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Imports and exports between China and the EU and ASEAN countries, and between China and other BRI countries both grew rapidly. The export of high-value-added products such as the integrated circuits and knowledge-intensive services continued to see rapid growth. We built an additional 24 integrated experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce, and steadily advanced trials of the market procurement trade methods as well as trials for the innovative development of the trade in services. We also raised the quality of development with regard to special customs regulation zones such as integrated bonded areas.

二是外貿發展穩中提質。推進貿易高質量發展的指導意見印發實施。第二屆中國國際進口博覽會成功舉辦。區域全面經濟夥伴關係協定(RCEP)談判取得重大進展。對歐盟、東盟以及“一帶一路”沿線國家進出口保持較快增長,集成電路等高附加值產品及知識密集型服務出口保持快速增長。新設24個跨境電商綜合試驗區,市場採購貿易方式試點、服務貿易創新發展試點扎實推進,綜合保税區等海關特殊監管區域發展質量進一步提升。

3)The utilization of foreign capital continuously increased. The Foreign Investment Law and the regulations regarding its implementation were enacted. We boosted efforts to attract investment in a broader range of sectors, and to encourage foreign investment in the manufacturing sector and producer services. We supported the relocation of foreign-invested industries to the central and western regions. The two editions of the 2019 negative list for foreign investment, one concerning the whole country and the other concerning pilot free trade zones, were reduced to 40 and 37 items respectively. The restrictions on the shareholding ratio and the scope of operations of foreign-invested financial institutions in China were relaxed, expanding the bidirectional opening up of the financial market. We promoted innovation and upgrading of state-level economic and technological development zones. We improved the management of foreign-debt registration for enterprises, and strengthened efforts to guard against foreign debt risks in key industries. China’s utilized foreign investment totaled US$ 138.1 billion over the year.

三是利用外資水平持續提升。外商投資法及實施條例出台實施。進一步擴大鼓勵外商投資範圍,鼓勵外資投向製造業和生產性服務業,支持中西部地區承接外資產業轉移。全國和自貿試驗區外資准入負面清單分別縮減至40條、37條。放寬在華外資金融機構持股比例和業務範圍限制,擴大金融市場雙向開放。推進國家級經濟技術開發區創新提升。完善企業外債備案登記管理,加強重點行業外債風險防範。全年實際使用外商直接投資1381億美元。

4) Positive results were achieved in developing pilot free trade zones. We expanded the Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone by setting up a Lin’gang Special Area, and established an additional six pilot zones including one in Shandong, thus having established pilot free trade zones in all coastal provincial-level regions and in border areas for the first time. We applied 49 institutional innovation practices of free trade zones across the country in 2019, bringing the total number of such practices to 223. The Hainan Free Trade Port saw rapid development.

四是自貿試驗區建設取得積極成效。增設上海自貿試驗區臨港新片區,新設山東等6個自貿試驗區,實現沿海省份全覆蓋,並首次在沿邊地區佈局。向全國複製推廣自貿試驗區49項制度創新成果,累計複製推廣223項。海南自由貿易港建設加快推進。

5) Outward investment grew steadily. We implemented the Guide on Compliance Management for Enterprises’ Overseas Operations, as Chinese equipment, technology, standards, and services made steady progress in “going global.” Non-financial outward direct investment reached US$ 110.6 billion in 2019. We expanded channels for cross-border financing of the RMB and advanced the internationalization of the RMB in an orderly manner.

五是境外投資平穩發展。實施企業境外經營合規管理指引,中國裝備、技術、標準和服務穩步“走出去”,全年非金融類境外直接投資1106億美元。人民幣跨境融資渠道逐步拓寬,人民幣國際化有序推進。

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experimental [iks.peri'mentl]

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adj. 實驗(性)的,試驗(性)的

 
quality ['kwɔliti]

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n. 品質,特質,才能
adj. 高品質的

 
border ['bɔ:də]

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n. 邊界,邊境,邊緣
vt. 與 ... 接

 
administration [əd.mini'streiʃən]

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n. 行政,管理,行政部門

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global ['gləubəl]

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adj. 全球性的,全世界的,球狀的,全局的

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estate [is'teit]

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stable ['steibl]

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vt. 釋放,讓與,準

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